- 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 1.1. Dashboard
1.2. Opening of the car
1.3. Rear-view mirrors
1.4. Switch of an ignition / starter
1.5. Manual transmission
1.6. Automatic transmission
1.7. Start of the engine
1.8. Release of the emergency brake
1.9. Parking of the car
1.10. Multipurpose display
1.11. Electronic air conditioning system
1.12. Safety locks
1.14. Lubricants and liquids
1.15. Motive compartment
- 1.16. Useful tips
+ 1.16.1. Purchase of the car
1.16.2. Preparation of the car for winter
+ 1.16.3. Councils for owners of the diesel car
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Repair of engines
+ 4. Heating system and ventilation
+ 5. Fuel, exhaust systems
+ 6. System of start of the engine
+ 7. System of ignition
+ 8. Coupling
+ 9. Transmissions
+ 10. Main transfer, half shafts
+ 11. Brake system
+ 12. Suspension bracket and steering
+ 13. Body
+ 14. Body electric equipment
If you did not prepare for it the car yet – hurry. We do not insist on that you implemented all our councils and recommendations independently. If there is no desire to potter – there are service stations and professional master. But you have to represent what needs to be made with the car, to accurately explain it to the master, and sometimes and to track that everything was made as it is necessary.
On snow and ice do not walk in sandals – the car for the winter should be changed too. We wrote about winter rubber repeatedly therefore we will shortly remind only highlights.
For winter tires with markings of M+S (Mud+Snow – "Dirt + Snow"), Winter ("Winter") or W are intended. These inscriptions sometimes are followed by pictograms in the form of a snowflake or a cloudlet.
It is better to choose tires narrower, than by what you go in the summer – naturally, within the dimensional range, admissible for your car. The protector has to press through snow and mud porridge to a hard coating, and narrow tires cope with it better.
It is undesirable to go in the winter by all-weather tires – those that are marked by the AS indexes (All Seasons – "All seasons") or AW (Any Weather – "Any weather").
"Winter" opportunities at them weak; all-weather in the true sense of the word they can be considered only if it is about low-snow Europe, but not about Russia. Told to a lesser extent concerns rubber for SUVs. It in all-weather execution significantly "more winter", than automobile. If you have a SUV, tires of AS and AW in the winter – it is acceptable. But, of course, it is worse, than M+S or Winter.
Snow tires on ice and on snow hold better, than not studded. But on pure asphalt when braking on thorns the probability of blocking of wheels, a drift and a brake way increase: steel thorns not bad slide on asphalt. Danger consists also that drivers blindly trust in thorns and, braking on asphalt, expect from them the same death grip, as well as on ice. By the way, not snow winter snow tires of new generations on a slippery surface behave almost not worse, than studded.
Some for the winter put snow tires only on driving wheels. And on conducted leave... summer. Do not do so, it is dangerous. On the slippery road the probability of demolition of not studded couple of wheels is very high, even in rather harmless situations, – coefficients of coupling and resistance to side withdrawal too strongly differ.
Not to shipuyta of the tire anywhere. It is process responsible, demanding the good equipment and experts. Warped, it is insufficiently or the thorns which are excessively drowned in rubber increase wear of the tire. And, clear, safety do not promote.
The main problem in the winter – launch of the cold engine. More often it arises at carburetor motors, but in a hard frost it also the owner of the car can face the injector engine. The reasons are known – the thickened oil, falling of capacity of the accumulator and bad evaporation of gasoline. We will consider oils and accumulators separately for now – several words about experience of the countries with a frigid climate where prestarting electric heaters – such "kipyatilnichka" in the engine cooling system are widely applied. Drove up to the house or to office, thrust a fork in the socket, turned on the timer... By the necessary time the engine will be heated-up, and some designs provide also warming up of salon.
Electric devices of heating are presented several years also at the Russian market. The Finnish heaters which can be completed with timers enjoy the greatest popularity. Cost together with installation – about $250. Approximately it is possible to buy a heater of domestic production for $100 (for VAZ models and Volga), but the timer for it is not provided.
The main lack of electroheating consists that at the house or office it is necessary to have a special guard with the socket. It to Finns is good, and we have the corresponding infrastructure if appears, then not soon and not everywhere. Other exit – an autonomous heater and uses liquid fuel which is built in the cooling system of the engine too by the principle of the boiler. As fuel for it serves gasoline or diesel fuel, depending on what the engine of your car works at.
Autonomous heaters of production Eberspacher, Webasto, and also product of the Shchadrinsky automodular plant (ShchAAZ) are presented at the Russian market.
It is possible to establish a heater at specialized stations which there is already a lot of also in Moscow, and in general across Russia. Warming up time – no more than 15 minutes, at the same time is spent by only 200 g of gasoline or diesel fuel. Such heaters (besides the timer) can be completed with the device of remote control. The cost of an autonomous heater in the Russian market – about $1000.
The advantage of systems of heating consists also that at their application the engine resource increases. For reference: each launch of the cold motor at a temperature of -20 °C is equivalent to a run in 800 km. By the way, according to modern views the motor will reach working temperature quicker, and its wear will be less if after start-up to do not stand still, and to begin the movement as soon as possible, avoiding, of course, excessive load of the engine.
Oil change is usually made in a binding to a car run, but not by a season. But as change oil on average time in half a year why not to make it in anticipation of winter?
The vast majority of modern engine oils – in a varying degree – all-weather. It is considered that it is necessary to fill in what is offered the producer in the maintenance instruction of the car. But winters happen different – both slushy and warm, and vigorous and frosty. Also it is not clear at all whether the producer assumed that its car will be operated in the conditions of the Russian winter and that oil will be required to it "more cold".
If you decided to deviate the instruction, at the choice of oil it is possible to use simple method of definition of its temperature suitability – for secure. Let's call this reception "rule 35".
Marking of engine oil has to include designation of a class of its viscosity on SAE scale. For example: 15W-40. It means that this oil on viscosity at subzero temperatures meets requirements imposed to winter oils of a class 15W, and at plus – to summer oils of a class 40.
Remember number 35. If to subtract a "winter" index of a class of viscosity from it, in our example it is 15, then the size called by the extreme temperature of pumpability i.e. temperature at which oil still keeps fluidity will turn out.
35-15=20. Means, oil 15W-40 can use at temperatures up to -20 °C.
Respectively, the less "winter" index of a class of viscosity, the oil is "colder". 10W – to -25 °C; 5W – to -30 °C.
It is also "rule 35". Simple and useful.
Struck a frost, and the accumulator which still yesterday was vigorously twisting a starter, refuses to do it flatly. Nothing surprising – when you loaded its last time?
If the accumulator is relatively young (up to 3–4 years), then in anticipation of winter it is enough to be washed up outside, to clear plugs and to load completely – if the car was constantly operated in the city, the charge of the battery is for certain far from nominal. If the accumulator old and to nominal capacity is not charged, change without thoughts, otherwise in the winter it for certain will bring you – capacity and so strongly also the increased energy consumption – a heater, heating of seats, light, janitors, a heater of back glass falls with fall of temperature, and here...
By the way, according to experts, the average duration of "full-fledged life" of the accumulator makes about twelve months, gradual withering begins further. And the peak of sales of starter batteries, according to sellers, is necessary just for the fall.
Times when the car owner was rushed off the feet in search of the new accumulator, passed long ago – from a variety of trademarks and models on shelves of shops flickers before eyes. What to choose – a personal record of everyone. Let's note only that in the market now it is possible to allocate two price groups – batteries worth over $60 (usually to $100), for example, "Bosch", "Steco", "American", "Fiamm", and accumulators at the price below $60 ("Mutlu", "Inci", "Centra", "SAEM" etc.).
Higher prices of batteries of the first group are defined by more perfect technology of their production. These accumulators, as a rule, belong to the category of unattended. Special types of electrolytes and tight execution of such batteries increase a resource of their operation and provide the high starter currents guaranteeing an engine provorachivayemost even at hard frosts. The leading producers without fail use now technology of packing of plates therefore it is possible to avoid short circuit of the battery in case of their destruction.
Cheaper accumulators demand periodic service – check of density of electrolyte and measurement of its level. Let's remind that electrolyte density for the winter period has to be not lower than 1,29.
Often upon purchase of the new battery try to choose it as capacity more if only got on the place allocated for it. But capacity – not the main thing. Far more important starter current which is provided by the battery. Even at the accumulator with a big capacity this indicator (because of big own resistance) can be shown below, than at the accumulator with a smaller capacity. Besides, the battery with a bigger capacity requires higher current of recharge which the generator of your car will not provide, and the battery will be discharged in use more and more that is deplorable will affect the term of its service.
By the way, if you buy the battery differing from regular, pay attention to an arrangement of its conclusions – accumulators of "the return polarity" which plugs wires of your car can not reach come across.
System of ignition
If you have a new car of foreign production moreover with the injector engine, it is possible not to read further. But if the used car, with the carburetor motor – then another matter.
Actually, power supply systems and ignitions are among themselves not connected. But on modern engines with injection you will not meet either the memorable mechanical distributor, or contacts of the breaker. And on carburetor – as much as necessary. And not to potter then on a frost, it is necessary to clean contacts, a distributor cover – too (and it is better to replace). Even better – to replace classical system of ignition on electronic (if still there were car owners who did not make it).
Do not forget about high-voltage wires. After few years of driving on our "salty" roads it is desirable to change them, and better – on wires with a silicone cover which are less sensitive to differences of temperatures. Besides, on them hoarfrost which often is the reason of lack of a spark is not formed. By the way, corrosion or a bad inhaling of accumulator plugs can be the banal cause of malfunctions of ignition.
Separately – about candles. Usually they are changed through 15–20 thousand kilometers, i.e. time in one and a half years (we do not take the supermodern, maintaining 100 thousand km and more). It is not necessary to save on candles – to calcinate, clean and regulate gaps. Change at least once a year – it is inexpensive. Also put new in anticipation of winter. Fuel system
Quite often it is the reason of unsatisfactory operation of the engine in winter time. And all because of the water condensate which accumulated in the fuel tank. If in a tank there is a drain stopper, water can just be merged if is not present – "to neutralize", having applied so-called "displacers of moisture". Practically all leading producers of auto chemical goods, attendees at the Russian market (STP, Loctite, WynnXs, Aspokem), offer similar medicines which are filled in in the fuel tank and gradually clear a power supply system.
Will not be superfluous to put the new filter of thin purification of fuel, to clean the carburetor and if the motor has system of injection – to be convinced of purity of injectors.
To owners of diesel foreign cars, especially if the car was operated in the country with soft climate earlier, it is worth taking care of equipment of fuel system special devices of heating. Practice shows that to start the diesel motor at -20 °C can be difficult as fuel loses fluidity (how "winter" diesel fuel which at us is on sale in the winter is – it is only possible to guess). One of effective measures – application of the warmed-up toplivoprivod and filters. At the same time it is possible to launch the diesel motor even at -40 °C. Heating is carried out by elements which eat from the regular accumulator.
The current consumed by them makes about 5A, inclusion of heaters for 5–10 minutes practically does not affect accumulator capacity.
Winter – not the best season for the car, especially at movement on the streets which are plentifully salted. During this period the body in the maximum degree is exposed to corrosion, and its anticorrosive processing is very desirable. However, according to employees some authorized service centers, for a number of new foreign cars, especially – with a galvanized body, factory processing is quite enough. But if at you, say, new Skoda (not to mention domestic cars), then experts recommend to carry out full anticorrosive processing of the bottom, wheel arches and the hidden cavities of a body. Also installation of flaps will be useful.
The cost of a complex of these services averages $250–300 and depends, generally on a type of the applied protective medicines. Them much now is presented at our market. But first of all it is worth paying, probably, attention to those which are applied in the countries with the climate similar to ours. It can be the Finnish Mercasol AL with aluminum additives, the Swedish Noxudol on the metallized basis, the Canadian Rust stop or Tektyl.
Anticorrosive processing demands strict observance of technology and though practically all producers of protective materials let out them in packing for household application, after all it is more preferable to make processing in the specialized service center. It is worth finding out in advance on what technology it is made. Anyway before drawing a sheeting on the bottom and arches the car has to be cleared of dirt, is washed up and dried carefully up.
As an anticorrosive mixture you do processing for several years, it is better to stay for a while near the car and to observe personally this process.
Winter – hard test and for a paint and varnish covering of a body. Sharp differences of temperatures, snow mixed up with salt, an ice crust – all this leads to emergence of microcracks on paint. It is possible to protect a surface of a body the special structure suitable for use at low temperatures, for example, of Plus Teflon or Color Magic. Processing carry out by these medicines approximately once a month – after obligatory washing of the car and its drying.
The question of where to hold the car in the winter, actually usually is not necessary – those who have a garage, keep it in a garage, those at whom is not present – on the street. Strangely enough, from the point of view of safety of a body (from corrosion, not from theft), between trips and it is one night better to leave the car on the street – at a cold body process of corrosion goes more slowly. In a cold garage of heat generated by the car is enough for that to warm it a little, and the melted snow with salt some time actively do the dirty deed. Well, and in a warm garage even if you carefully washed the car from salt from below, it will stand all night long wet...